STUDIES AVAILABLE OF SHILAJIT
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Department of Veterinary Molecular Biology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA.
Shilajit has been used traditionally in folk medicine for the treatment of a variety of disorders, including syndromes involving excessive complement activation. Extracts of Shilajit contain significant amounts of fulvic acid (FA), and it has been suggested that FA is responsible for many therapeutic properties of Shilajit. However, little is known regarding the physical and chemical properties of Shilajit extracts, and nothing is known about their effects on the complement system. To address this issue, extracts of commercial Shilajit were fractionated using anion exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. One neutral (S-I) and two acidic (S-II and S-III) fractions were isolated, characterized and compared with standardized FA samples. The most abundant fraction (S-II) was further fractionated into three sub-fractions (S-II-1 to S-II-3). The van Krevelen diagram showed that the Shilajit fractions are the products of polysaccharide degradation, and all fractions, except S-II-3, contained type II arabinogalactan. All Shilajit fractions exhibited dose-dependent complement-fixing activity in vitro with high potency. Furthermore, a strong correlation was found between the complement-fixing activity and carboxylic group content in the Shilajit fractions and other FA sources. These data provide a molecular basis to explain at least part of the beneficial therapeutic properties of Shilajit and other humic extracts. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
PMID: 19107845 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID: PMC2650748 [Available on 2010/03/01]
Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), New Delhi, India.
The aim of the present work was to complex furosemide (FSM) with fulvic acid (FA) extracted from shilajit with the hope of having a better understanding of the complexation behavior. The effect of FA on the aqueous solubility, dissolution rate, and permeability of FSM was investigated. Different techniques, such as grinding, freeze drying, solvent evaporation, and so forth, were used for the preparation of the complex. The complexes were prepared in molar ratios of 1:1 and 1:2 FSM:FA and were evaluated for drug inclusion, solubility, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, dissolution study, and permeation study. These methods confirm the formation of an amorphous inclusion complex of FSM with FA.
PMID: 18473233 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, India. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Use of typical antipsychotics like haloperidol in treatment of schizophrenia is associated with a high incidence of extrapyramidal side effects. In rodents, administration of haloperidol leads to the development of a behavioural state called catalepsy, in which the animal is not able to correct an externally imposed posture. In the present study we evaluated the anticataleptic efficacy of NR-ANX-C, a polyherbal formulation containing bioactives of Withania somnifera, Ocimum sanctum, Camellia sinensis, triphala and shilajit in haloperidol induced catalepsy in mice. METHODS: Five groups (n = 6) of male albino mice were used in the study. Catalepsy was induced by ip administration of haloperidol (1mg/kg). The degree of catalepsy (cataleptic score) was measured as the time the animal maintained an imposed posture. We compared the anticataleptic efficacy of NR-ANX-C (10, 25 and 50 mg/kg) with scopolamine (1 mg/kg). The superoxide dismutase (SOD) level in brain tissue was also estimated to correlate the levels of oxidative stress and degree of catalepsy in the animal. RESULTS: Significant (P<0.01) reduction in the cataleptic scores was observed in all NR-ANX-C treated groups and maximum reduction was observed in the NR-ANX-C (25 mg/kg) treated group. Significant (P<0.05) reduction in SOD activity was observed in NR-ANX-C (25 and 50 mg/kg) treated groups and maximum reduction was observed in NR-ANX-C (25mg/kg) treated group. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: In our study, maximum reduction in cataleptic score was observed in NR-ANX-C (25 mg/kg) treated group. The maximum reduction in SOD activity was also observed in the same group. These findings suggest a possible involvement of the antioxidant potential of NRANX- C in alleviating haloperidol induced catalepsy.
PMID: 18160755 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Department of Pharmaceutics, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi 110062, India.
Shilajit is a pale-brown to blackish-brown exudation, of variable consistency, exuding from layers of rocks in many mountain ranges of the world, especially the Himalayas and Hindukush ranges of the Indian subcontinent. It has been found to consist of a complex mixture of organic humic substances and plant and microbial metabolites occurring in the rock rhizospheres of its natural habitat. Shilajit has been used as a rejuvenator and an adaptogen for thousands of years, in one form or another, as part of traditional systems of medicine in a number of countries. Many therapeutic properties have been ascribed to it, a number of which have been verified by modern scientific evaluation. Shilajit has been attributed with many miraculous healing properties. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
PMID: 17295385 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Park JS, Kim GY, Han K.
College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Heungdukgu Gaeshindong San 12, Chungbuk 361-763, South Korea.
This study examined the possibility of using Shilajit as a fertility agent. The effects of Shilajit on spermatogenesis and ovogenesis were studied using male and female rats. Shilajit was administered orally to 7-week-old rats over a 6-week period. In the male rats, the number of sperms in the testes and epididymides was significant higher than in the control. A histological examination revealed an apparent increase in the number of seminiferous tubular cell layers in the testes of the treated rats. However, there were no significant differences in the weights of heart, spleen, liver, kidney, brain, testes and epididymides. In the female rats, the effect of Shilajit was estimated by the ovulation inducing activity. Over a 5-day, ovulation was induced in seven out of nine rats in the Shilajit administration group and in three out of nine rats in the control. It was estimated that Shilajit had both a spermiogenic and ovogenic effect in mature rats.
PMID: 16698205 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Faculty of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, Post Box No. 232, Amman University, Amman 19328, Jordan. email@example.com
Effects of concomitant administration of Processed Shilajit (PS, 0.1 and 1 mg/kg, i.p.), in Swiss mice were evaluated on the development of tolerance to morphine induced analgesia in the hot plate test. Chronic administration of morphine (10 mg/kg, i.p., b.i.d.) to mice over a duration of 10 days resulted in the development of tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine. Concomitant administration of PS with morphine, from day 6 to day 10, resulted in a significant inhibition of the development of tolerance to morphine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) induced analgesia. Processed Shilajit per se, in the doses used, did not elicit any significant analgesia in mice; nor did the chronic concomitant administration of Processed Shilajit alter the morphine-induced analgesia. These findings with Processed Shilajit indicate its potential as a prospective modifier of analgesic tolerance to morphine. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
PMID: 11268125 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India.
Siotone (ST) is a herbal formulation comprising of Withania somnifera, Ocimum sanctum, Asparagus racemosus, Tribulus terristris and shilajit, all of which are classified in Ayurveda as rasayanas which are reputed to promote physical and mental health, improve defence mechanisms of the body and enhance longevity. These attributes are similar to the modern concept of adaptogenic agents, which are, known to afford protection of the human physiological system against diverse stressors. The present study was undertaken to investigate the adaptogenic activity of ST against chronic unpredictable, but mild, footshock stress induced perturbations in behaviour (depression), glucose metabolism, suppressed male sexual behaviour, immunosuppression and cognitive dysfunction in CF strain albino rats. Gastric ulceration, adrenal gland and spleen weights, ascorbic acid and corticosterone concentrations of adrenal cortex, and plasma corticosterone levels, were used as the stress indices. Panax ginseng (PG) was used as the standard adaptogenic agent for comparison. Additionally, rat brain levels of tribulin, an endogenous endocoid postulated to be involved in stress, were also assessed in terms of endogenous monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and MAOB inhibitory activity. Chronic unpredictable footshock induced marked gastric ulceration, significant increase in adrenal gland weight and plasma corticosterone levels, with concomitant decreases in spleen weight, and concentrations of adrenal gland ascorbic acid and corticosterone. These effects were attenuated by ST (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and PG (100 mg/kg, p.o.), administered once daily over a period of 14 days, the period of stress induction. Chronic stress also induced glucose intolerance, suppressed male sexual behaviour, induced behavioural depression (Porsolt's swim despair test and learned helplessness test) and cognitive dysfunction (attenuated retention of learning in active and passive avoidance tests), and immunosuppression (leucocyte migration inhibition and sheep RBC challenged increase in paw oedema in sensitized rats). All these chronic stress-induced perturbations were attenuated, dose-dependently by ST (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and PG (100 mg/kg, p.o.). Chronic stress-induced increase in rat brain tribulin activity was also reversed by these doses of ST and by PG. The results indicate that ST has significant adaptogenic activity, qualitatively comparable to PG, against a variety of behavioural, biochemical and physiological perturbations induced by unpredictable stress, which has been proposed to be a better indicator of clinical stress than acute stress parameters. The likely contribution of the individual constituents of ST in the observed adaptogenic action of the polyherbal formulation, have been discussed.
PMID: 11218827 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Weider Nutrition International, Salt Lake City, UT 84104-4726, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Herbs have been used throughout history to enhance physical performance, but scientific scrutiny with controlled clinical trials has only recently been used to study such effects. The following herbs are currently used to enhance physical performance regardless of scientific evidence of effect: Chinese, Korean, and American ginsengs; Siberian ginseng, mahuang or Chinese ephedra; ashwagandha; rhodiola; yohimbe; CORDYCEPS: fungus, shilajit or mummio; smilax; wild oats; Muira puama; suma (ecdysterone); Tribulus terrestris; saw palmetto berries; beta-sitosterol and other related sterols; and wild yams (diosgenin). Controlled studies of Asian ginsengs found improvements in exercise performance when most of the following conditions were true: use of standardized root extracts, study duration (>8 wk, daily dose >1 g dried root or equivalent, large number of subjects, and older subjects. Improvements in muscular strength, maximal oxygen uptake, work capacity, fuel homeostasis, serum lactate, heart rate, visual and auditory reaction times, alertness, and psychomotor skills have also been repeatedly documented. Siberian ginseng has shown mixed results. Mahuang, ephedrine, and related alkaloids have not benefited physical performance except when combined with caffeine. Other herbs remain virtually untested. Future research on ergogenic effects of herbs should consider identity and amount of substance or presumed active ingredients administered, dose response, duration of test period, proper experimental controls, measurement of psychological and physiologic parameters (including antioxidant actions), and measurements of performance pertinent to intended uses.
PMID: 10919969 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Drug Control Authority, Safat, Kuwait.
The efficacy of shilajit, a gummy exudate of the plant Styrax officinalis Linn (Family: Styraceae), was evaluated as a suspending agent for the formulation of antacid preparations. Shilajit produced effects on sedimentation volume similar to those produced by sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), but at lower concentrations. It induced better flocculation with a moderate increase in viscosity compared to CMC. It did not interfere with the acid-consuming capacity of the suspensions.
PMID: 9876568 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Department of Pharmacology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India.
Diabetes mellitus was induced in male CF strain rats by streptozotocin (STZ) and hyperglycaemia and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of pancreatic islet cells was assessed on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. STZ induced significant hyperglycaemia and a concomitant decrease in islet cell SOD activity. Transina (TR), an Ayurvedic herbal formulation comprising of Withania somnifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Eclipta alba, Ocimum sanctum, Picrorrhiza kurroa and shilajit, had little per se effect on blood sugar concentrations and islet SOD activity in euglycaemic rats, in the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. administered once daily for 28 days. However, these doses of TR induced a dose- related decrease in STZ hyperglycaemia and attenuation of STZ induced decrease in islet SOD activity. The results indicate that the earlier reported anti-hyperglycaemic effect of TR may be due to pancreatic islet free radical scavenging activity, the hyperglycaemic activity of STZ being the consequence of decrease in islet SOD activity leading to the accumulation of degenerative oxidative free radicals in islet beta-cells.
PMID: 9332177 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Schliebs R, Liebmann A, Bhattacharya SK, Kumar A, Ghosal S, Bigl V.
Paul Flechsig Institute for Brain Research, Department of Neurochemistry, University of Leipzig, Germany.
Although some promising results have been achieved by acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, an effective therapeutic intervention in Alzheimer's disease still remains an important goal. Sitoindosides VII-X, and withaferin-A, isolated from aqueous methanol extract from the roots of cultivated varieties of Withania somnifera (known as Indian Ginseng), as well as Shilajit, a pale-brown to blackish brown exudation from steep rocks of the Himalaya mountain, are used in Indian medicine to attenuate cerebral functional deficits, including amnesia, in geriatric patients. The present investigation was conducted to assess whether the memory-enhancing effects of plant extracts from Withania somnifera and Shilajit are owing to neurochemical alterations of specific transmitter systems. Therefore, histochemistry to analyse acetylcholinesterase activity as well as receptor autoradiography to detect cholinergic, glutamatergic and GABAergic receptor subtypes were performed in brain slices from adult male Wistar rats, injected intraperitoneally daily with an equimolar mixture of sitoindosides VII-X and withaferin-A (prepared from Withania somnifera) or with Shilajit, at doses of 40 mg/kg of body weight for 7 days. Administration of Shilajit led to reduced acetylcholinesterase staining, restricted to the basal forebrain nuclei including medial septum and the vertical limb of the diagonal band. Systemic application of the defined extract from Withania somnifera, however, led to differential effects on AChE activity in basal forebrain nuclei: slightly enhanced AChE activity was found in the lateral septum and globus pallidus, whereas in the vertical diagonal band AChE activity was reduced following treatment with sitoindosides VII-X and withaferin-A. These changes were accompanied by enhanced M1-muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding in lateral and medial septum as well as in frontal cortices, whereas the M2-muscarinic receptor binding sites were increased in a number of cortical regions including cingulate, frontal, piriform, parietal and retrosplenial cortex. Treatment with Shilajit or the defined extract from Withania somnifera affected neither GABAA and benzodiazepine receptor binding nor NMDA and AMPA glutamate receptor subtypes in any of the cortical or subcortical regions studied. The data suggest that Shilajit and the defined extract from Withania somnifera affect preferentially events in the cortical and basal forebrain cholinergic signal transduction cascade. The drug-induced increase in cortical muscarinic acetylcholine receptor capacity might partly explain the cognition-enhancing and memory-improving effects of extracts from Withania somnifera observed in animals and humans.
PMID: 9017665 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Department of Pharmacology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanas, India.
In folk medicine, shilajit has been used to treat diverse clinical conditions ranging from peptic ulcer to bone healing. The present study was conducted to evaluate the possible antiulcerogenic and antiinflammatory activities of shilajit obtained from the rocky mountains of Zarlek, Badekshan, Afghanistan. Shilajit increased the carbohydrate/protein ratio and decreased gastric ulcer index, indicating an increased mucus barrier. Shilajit was found to have significant antiinflammatory effect in carrageenan-induced acute pedal oedema, granuloma pouch and adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. The results of the present study thus substantiate the use of shilajit in peptic ulcer and inflammation.
PMID: 2345464 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]